Archive for August, 2013

Genetic Reduction of Phytate in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seeds Increases Iron Absorption in Young Women

Petry N, Egli I, Campion B, Nielsen E, and Hurrell R.

July 2013 – Journal of Nutrition

Iron bioavailability from common beans is negatively influenced by phytic acid and polyphenols. Newly developed low-PA (lpa) beans with 90% less PA and variable PPs might improve iron bioavailability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lpa beans on iron bioavailability in women (n = 20). We compared iron absorption from 4 different beans using a paired, double meal, crossover design. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes from 2 lpa bean lines, one high in PPs and one low in PPs. The other 2 beans used were their parents with a normal PA concentration, one high in PPs and one low in PPs. Fractional iron absorption from the lpa bean high in PPs was 6.1%, which was 60 and 130% higher compared with the parent high in PPs (P < 0.001) and low in PPs (P < 0.001), respectively. The total amount of iron absorbed per test meal from the lpa bean high in PPs (372 μg) was 60 and 163% higher compared with the parent high in PPs (P < 0.001) and low in PPs (P < 0.001), respectively. Fractional iron absorption from the lpa line low in PPs (4%) was 50% higher and the total amount of iron absorbed per test meal (261 μg) was 85% higher than iron from the parent low in PPs (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the lpa beans high or low in PPs or between the parents high or low in PPs. A 90% reduction in PA leads to an increase in bioavailable iron from beans, independent of the PP concentration. The lpa mutation could be a key tool for improving iron bioavailability from beans.

Infant and young child feeding practices in urban Philippines and their associations with stunting, anemia, and deficiencies of iron and vitamin A

Rohner F, Woodruff BA, Aaron GJ, Yakes EA, Lebanan MA, Rayco-Solon P, and Saniel OP.

June 2013 – Food and Nutrition Bulletin

To improve the understanding of contributors associated with the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age living in urban areas of the Philippines, a cross-sectional survey was conducted covering five urban centers in the Philippines. Data on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status (including wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency) were collected for 1,784 children. Among children from urban and predominantly poor and very poor households, 26% were stunted, 18% were underweight, and 5% were wasted. Forty-two percent were anemic, 28% were iron deficient, and 3% were vitamin A deficient. About half of the children were breastfed within an hour after birth, were breastfed at the time of the survey, and had been continuously breastfed up to 1 year of age. Of the factors investigated, low socio-economic status, use of cheaper cooking fuel, and nonuse of multivitamins were all independently associated with stunting. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency were independently associated with the same factors and poorer sanitation facilities, lower maternal education, current unemployment, and inflammation. These factors merit attention in future programming, and interventions may include promotion of the timely introduction of appropriate fortified complementary foods, the use of affordable multiple micronutrient preparations, and measures to reduce infection.

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