Archive for September, 2014

Phytic Acid Concentration Influences Iron Bioavailability from Biofortified Beans in Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status

Petry N, Egli I, Gahutu JB, Tugirimana PL, Boy E, Hurrell RF

September 2014 – Journal of Nutrition

The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. To evaluate the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, a multiple-meal iron absorption crossover study was conducted in Rwandese women. Iron absorption was based on the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, and meals contained biofortified beans and control beans; beans tested either contained their native PA concentration and were dephytinized at ∼50% and >95%. The quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P < 0.05) than that from the control bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P < 0.005) and 51% (P < 0.0001) higher than from the control bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans.

Vitamin D status and associated factors of deficiency among Jordanian children of preschool age

Nichols EK, Khatib IM, Aburto NJ, Serdula MK, Scanlon KS, Wirth JP, Sullivan KM

September 2014 – European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Vitamin D deficiency in children remains a global concern. Although literature exists on the vitamin D status and its risk factors among children in the Middle East, findings have yielded mixed results, and large, representative community studies are lacking. In a nationally representative survey of 1077 Jordanian children of preschool age (12-59 months) in Spring 2010, we measured 25(OH)D3 concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and calculated prevalence ratios for deficiency associated with various factors. Results showed 19.8% deficiency (<12 ng/ml) and 56.5% insufficiency (<20 ng/ml). In adjusted models, prevalence of deficiency was higher for females compared with males and lower for children 24-35 months of age compared with children 12-23 months of age. In rural areas, there was no difference in prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between those whose mothers had/did not have vitamin D deficiency (P=0.312); however, in urban areas, prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 3.18 times greater among those whose mothers were vitamin D deficient compared with those whose mothers were not deficient (P=0.000). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency pose significant public health problems in Jordanian children with female children disproportionately affected. Strong associations between vitamin D status in children and urban residency and maternal vitamin D status suggest that the behaviors related to sun exposure in urban mothers likely also affect the sun exposure and thus vitamin D status of their children.

Ebenezer Adjetey, BSc

Ebenezer Adjetey is an IT specialist, focusing on survey programming and data management for studies and surveys related to nutrition and public health. Ebenezer has programmed questionnaires and managed data for research trials related to infant and young child nutrition and iron-folate supplementation and adolescent girls in Ghana. As a consultant for GroundWork, he has programmed questionnaires for national nutrition and micronutrient surveys in Ghana, Uzbekistan, Jordan, and Somalia. Ebenezer is passionate about developing data collection systems that generate accurate, complete, and timely data. He is currently based in Accra, Ghana.