Archive for July, 2016

Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

Wirth JP, Leyvraz M, Sodani PR, Aaron GJ, Sharma ND, Woodruff BA

July 2016 – PLOS ONE

To assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana, India. Iodine concentration of salt samples was tested using iodometric titration, and information on household rice consumption and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. Due to the significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district and brand, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers will help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population.

Situation analysis of salt iodization and iodine status in Angola

Project Completed

The Iodine Global Network aims to improve the iodine status of individuals by supporting national programs with consistent programmatic guidance. When data is lacking, IGN compiles the data required to design and evaluate iodine programs. In collaboration, the Iodine Global Network and GroundWork conducted a situation analysis of salt iodization and iodine deficiency disorders in Angola. The situation analysis documents all information related to Angola’s salt market and national salt iodization program and contains all evidence from Angola on iodine deficiency disorders. In addition, the situation analysis identifies the information gaps and makes research and programmatic recommendations for iodine stakeholders in Angola.

The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Rohner F, Leyvraz M, Konan AG, Esso LJCE, Wirth JP, Norte A, Adiko AF, Bonfoh B, Aaron GJ

July 2016 – PLOS ONE

Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet.