Rohner F, Nizamov F, Petry N, Yuldasheva F, Ismailov R, Wegmüller R, Guo S, Wirth JP, Woodruff BA
March 2020 – Thyroid
We conducted a cross-sectional household survey to produce region-specific estimates of the household coverage with adequately iodized salt and iodine status among women for each of the 14 regions in Uzbekistan. Overall, 36% of 3413 households had adequately iodized salt (iodine concentration >15 ppm [parts per million (mg I/kg salt)]), 20% had inadequately iodized salt (5–14 ppm), and 44% had salt without detectable iodine (<5 ppm). Adequate iodization was found in 33.2% of the 2626 salt samples taken from retail packages labeled as ‘‘iodized,’’ 36.5% of the 96 samples taken from retail packages without mention of iodization, and 50.5% of the 674 samples without the original packaging ( p < 0.001). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 140.9 lg/L in non-pregnant non-lactating women indicated adequate iodine status, while for non-pregnant lactating and pregnant women, the median UIC of 112.9 ug/L [CI 99.3–128.4] and 117.3 ug/L [CI 101.8–139.9], respectively, indicated borderline adequacy. Significant differences in UIC ( p < 0.001) were found between non-pregnant non-lactating women living in households with adequately iodized salt (UIC 208.9 ug/L), inadequately iodized salt (UIC 139.1 ug/L), and non-iodized salt (UIC 89.9 ug/L). Coverage with adequately iodized salt is low in Uzbekistan, and women in households with poorly iodized salt have substantially worse iodine status; claims on packaging about salt iodization do not reflect salt iodine content.